M. Kuhwald, K. Dörnhöfer, N. Oppelt, and R. Duttmann
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1618
S. Ledermüller, M. Lorenz, J. Brunotte, and N. Fröba
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2915
The combination of high rainfall in autumn 2017 and the resulting unfavorable soil conditions while silage corn and sugar beet harvest campaigns as well as the long period of drought in many regions in spring/summer 2018 caused a strong impairment of root growth in cereals. This has led to a considerable decline in yields.
A total precipitation of 173 mm on our study site in Adenstedt (Lower Saxony, Germany) in the main harvest months of September and October 2017 left a fast-closing window for a soil conserving field traffic during silage corn and sugar beet harvest campaign. In addition, when cultivating the succeeding crop, usually wheat, an unfavorable soil structure prevailed partially. In July and August 2017, a total of 334 mm of precipitation fell at our study site, which resulted in very wet soil conditions before harvest. The average for July and August is expected to be 160 mm. From July to October, the rainfall was 507 mm, which makes up more than 60% of the annual precipitation at our study site. On average, the amount of rainfall for this period is 294 mm. The result was very wet soil and thus vulnerable to compaction during the main harvest period.
Especially high wheel loads in combination with an increased number of wheel crossings can lead to negative effects on soil structure and the various soil functions under wet soil conditions. The harvest chain of silage corn has wheel loads of 7-8 t in combination with up to 8 repetitions of wheel crossings. Sugar beet harvesters with crab steering function can reduce the number of wheel crossings to 1 on a large part of the field. As a bunker machine, however, wheel loads of 10-12 t are attained.
Furthermore, the very dry spring and summer had a considerable influence on the wheat yields, which partly reached only 60-70 % of the typical yield. In the period from May to July 2018, only 100 mm precipitation was recorded at our test site. This is only 46 % of the average precipitation (217 mm) for this period.
Against this background, SOILAssist scientists have investigated case studies in the region of Ambergau (Hildesheim) in which maize or sugar beet harvesting and winter wheat cultivation took place spatially close to each other under favorable or unfavorable conditions. For this purpose, the wheat was harvested by hand in several random samples (1 m2 each) per variant and then the large-area harvest was carried out with the combine harvester.
The harvest results in combination with the respective cultivation data will show the effects of mechanical loads at different sensitive soil conditions on plant development and economic excellence of different process chains. Based on this, conclusions and recommendations for a future optimization or excellence of different management options depending on the prevailing weather conditions and processes will be derived.
From 19th to 20th of June 2018 a joint workshop of SOILAssist and Grimme took place in Damme. The topic was ‘soil conserving field traffic’ during the sugar beet and potato harvest.
In addition to the technical lectures, a field demonstration of the soil pressure and soil deformation measuring device was demonstrated to the approx. 35 participants using a potato harvester. Furthermore, Joachim Brunotte demonstrated the ‘simple soil structure assessment for the farmer’ by means of a small profile pit.
To illustrate the topic, 'information materials on soil', such as various soil profile banners and a walk-on soil map of Lower Saxony, were made available by the LBEG in Hanover.
By including soil protection aspects as well as the requirements and possibilities of agricultural technology, future strategies for a soil conserving field traffic were debated and discussed.
We would like to thank all participants for the active exchange!
The project partners Thünen Institute for Agricultural Technology and CAU Kiel met in Kiel from 17th to 18th of May 2018 for a workshop on 'field trials'. We discussed the results of the field trials from 2016 and 2017 and the planned upcoming field trials for the harvest season 2018.
SOILAssist was represented at this year's conference of the European Geoscience Union (EGU) 2018 in Vienna.
Contribution: Liquid manure application in spring - are soil conserving measures available? (M. Siekmann, M. Lorenz, K. Nolting, B. Ortmeier and J. Brunotte)
From 27th to 28th of March 2018 SOILAssist met for a workshop 'modeling and on-board assistance system' at the DFKI in Osnabrück. We discussed the status of our modeling concepts and their integration into the on-board assistance system and pushed ahead with the planning of further work.
SOILAssist was represented with 7 presentations and 7 poster presentations at the BonaRes Conference 2018 in Berlin. Under the following link 'Soil in the focus of researchers' you will find an interesting article about the conference and the contribution of SOILAssist.
Our SOILAssist project meeting took place on the 14th to 15th of February 2018 in the Lüneburger Heide in Hermannsburg. We exchanged information about the status of our work as well as previous results and discussed the upcoming work until the end of the 1st project phase and the future work in the 2nd project phase was defined and planned.
Thünen Institute and Lower Saxony Chamber of Agriculture hold workshop on 'Amendment to fertilizer ordinance and soil protection - A new field of conflict?'
In December, about 20 farmers, representatives of machinery rings/contracting companies and agricultural consultants discussed with employees of the Thünen Institute and representatives of the Lower Saxony Chamber of Agriculture the challenges and possible solutions for the implementation of the amendment to the Fertilizer Ordinance against the background of soil conserving cultivation. One of the aims of the amendment of the Fertilizer Ordinance (DüV) is to reduce emissions of fertilizer application to the air as well as to groundwater and surface waters. New regulations on the vesting period and on the limitation of application quantities will result in a postponement of the application quantities of farm manure until spring. The application of farm manure is associated with high wheel loads on the soil as a result of field traffic with large slurry tanks. In spring, the soils usually still have high water contents until March and are therefore very vulnerable to compaction. The new fertilizer ordinance will help to improve air and water protection. However, it can exacerbate the conflicts between optimized fertilization and soil protection.
The workshop took place as part of our SOILAssist research project and was jointly organized by the Thünen Institute and the Lower Saxony Chamber of Agriculture. The workshop demonstrated high importance and challenge of soil protection in fertilizer application. The greatest challenge is the shorter application window and the quantity restrictions. Technical solutions are required that allow soil conserving cultivation with the same performance. Above all, the additional financial burden, the availability of technology, for example for contractors, and the technical possibilities for slurry processing were critically discussed. The results of the workshop will be incorporated into further project work.
We would like to thank all participants for the active exchange and support.
On 30th of October 2017 the sugar beet harvest took place on our study fields.
The aim of this campaign was on the one hand to test how the available machine data from the ISOBUS can be used in the on-board assistance system later. The test was carried out under real conditions. Relevant data are e.g. GPS coordinates, driving speed, fuel consumption, information on the digging unit, etc. The reading out of specific machine parameters is especially important with regard to the on-board assistance system to be developed in SOILAssist. On the other hand, a calibration of an installed sensor in the REXOR 630 by Grimme was performed under real conditions. This sensor measures the increase of the volume of sugar beet in the bunker during harvest. The bunker weight can be determined by calibration with the current bulk density of the beets. The REXOR was weighed several times with a full bunker using portable scales. In addition, volumetric beet samples of approx. 1 m³ were taken with a cage to determine the current bulk density. This increases the accuracy of the sensor.
Together with the RTK GPS, the sensor can then be used to determine the axle and wheel loads at any point in the field and thus determine the different mechanical soil loads in the field during harvesting. To realize an exact traffic monitoring, the operating conditions of the machine, e.g. harvest condition and unloading of sugar beets at the clamp in the headlands etc. were documented during harvest.
This year's silage corn harvest took place on the 13th of October 2017 on the SOILAssist study fields, after the harvest had to be shifted due to very rainy weather the week before. Compared to the extremely dry last year 2016, the silage corn harvest this year took place at significantly higher soil moisture conditions.
This year, we not only took photos, but also made videos of the silage corn harvest, overloading and the wheeling experiment.
The harvest chain consisted of the chopper (FR 550) provided by New Holland, our test tractor (New Holland T7), a push-off trailer (Fliegl Gigant ASW 268) provided by Fliegl Agrartechnik GmbH and a tractor (New Holland M160) with mulcher (Agrimaster). The push-off trailer with overloading screw enables overloading of the chopped material directly at the edge of the field onto waiting trucks. This means that the tire inflation pressure can be significantly lowered compared to road driving, resulting in a more soil conserving field traffic under wet soil conditions.
To estimate the yield before the harvest, a hand harvest was carried out in advance. The SOILAssist scientists performed three different wheeling experiments during the silage corn harvest. First, the soil pressure and soil deformation of the entire harvest chain were measured. The chopper, the tractor with the push-off trailer and the tractor with the mulcher crossed the measuring point one by one. Subsequently, separate wheeling experiments were done in which the chopper and the tractor with push-off trailer were examined individually. Before and after the wheeling experiment, undisturbed soil samples were taken in order to determine not only soil pressure and deformation but also the influence of the field traffic on the soil structure and soil functions. In addition to the wheeling experiments, measurements were carried out with the penetrologger to measure the penetration resistance of the soil. Furthermore, the contact areas of the tires of the different agricultural machines were determined. Portable scales were used to determine the weight and wheel load of the individual machines, which is relevant for the experiments.
Contact: Dr. Johanna Fick (firstname.lastname@example.org)
In September 2017 scientists from SOILAssist participated in the conference of the German Soil Science Society in Göttingen.
Contribution: Development of a spatio-temporal soil information model for the drivability analysis of arable land (M. Kuhwald, K. Augustin, R. Duttmann)
Once again, this year, the SOILAssist study fields were used for extensive wheeling experiments and field trials during the winter wheat harvest. Even before the harvest, the scientists carried out a hand harvest of the wheat on various plots in the field and took soil samples from plots that are unwheeled.
The colleagues at the Christian-Albrechts-Universität in Kiel examined the impact in terms of cumulative traffic effects on the basis of the traffic movements of recent years. Different load classes on the field were calculated with the help of the field traffic model. The scientists tracked the plots with RTK-GPS and marked them on site. Together with colleagues from the Thünen Institute in Braunschweig, a targeted sampling of the soil was then carried out at different depths in order to subsequently examine it for soil physics.
Colleagues from the Thünen Institute of Agricultural Technology in Braunschweig carried out wheeling experiments with a New Holland TX 63 combine harvester. With the help of RTK-GPS tracking during wheat harvesting, it was possible to calculate that the combine harvester performs an average of two wheel crossings (one pass, two axles) in the core field and an average of eight wheel crossings (four passes) in the headlands. These two variants were imitated with the TX 63 with a full grain tank and soil pressure and deformation measured during the wheel crossing. The subsequent soil sampling was used for soil physical analysis in the laboratory.
In addition to the field tests, the scientists also recorded parameters such as the weight of the combine harvester, the tire contact areas, the track depth and the penetration resistance of the soil.
Kuhwald, M., Blaschek, M., Brunotte, J. and Duttmann, R. (2017)
Soil Use and Management, DOI: 10.1111/sum.12372.
SOILAssist participated in the Wageningen Soil Conference 2017 from August 27th to 31st on the campus in Ede-Wageningen. The biennial Soil Conference at Wageningen University & Research (WUR) was held this year under the motto Soil Science in a Changing World. One of the six main topics focused on Governance and Policy.
Governance & Policy was an important topic at the Wageningen Soil Conference. After keynote speeches by Annette Schneegans (European Commission, DG AGRI) and Simon Moolenaar (Commonland Foundation), BonaRes SOILAssist opened the governance session with a speech by Kirstin Marx (Soil Unit of the Thünen Institute) and Marco Lorenz (Thünen Institute for Agricultural Technology) on SOILAssist - Assisting Farmers to reach the SDG Goals 12 and 1.
In June 2017 scientists from SOILAssist took part in the Pedometrics in Wageningen.
Among all participants of the survey on technical soil protection, 10 winners were drawn. They will either receive a copy of the'Simple Soil Structure Assessment for the Fatmer' or a new spade.
We thank everyone who took part in the survey and supported us!
In April the scientists of SOILAssist were participating in the conference of the European Geoscience Union (EGU) in Vienna with 3 contributions in different sessions.
Contributions: An application to model traffic intensity of agricultural machinery at field scale (K. Augustin, M. Kuhwald, R. Duttmann)
The effects of one-time inversion tillage on soil physical properties after long-term reduced tillage (M. Kuhwald, K. Augustin, R. Duttmann)
Effects of different agricultural management on a stagnic Luvisol in Lower Saxony, Germany – Factors for sustainable soil protection (M. Lorenz, M. Siekmann, J. Brunotte, B. Ortmeier)
On our SOILAssist study fields, extensive measurements on different manure and fermentation residue application techniques for silage corn were carried out from the 14th to the 17th of March 2017. The aim of these investigations was to examine the influence of different application techniques on soil structure and changes in soil functions. Especially in spring, when liquid manure is applied and will be increasingly used due to changes in the fertilizer ordinance, the soils often show a higher soil moisture value, which is critical for soil compaction. The choice of technology and the correspondingly adapted machine parameters are crucial to ensure that the field traffic is as gentle on the soil as possible. The investigated technology variations represent the range of slurry application in practice:
To ensure clean soil sampling, no fermentation residues were applied during the measurements. The self-propelled slurry tank and the tractor with tandem slurry tank were driven over the measuring point with a full tank but without spreading the fermentation residues; so was the tractor with the umbilical cord slurry spreading as well.
The final fertilization of the field was carried out with the umbilical cord slurry spreading technique before sowing of silage corn.
In January, the SOILAssist project was presented at the University of Southern Queensland (Toowoomba). Purpose of the trip to Australia were exchange of experiences and networking on topics of soil erosion and soil compaction. Contact person on the Australian side was Dr. Christian Roth from the CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) in Brisbane.
Our project leader Dr. Joachim Brunotte (Thünen Institute of Agricultural Technology in Braunschweig) was especially interested in obtaining an overview of CTF systems (Controlled Traffic Farming) in Australian crop rotations and their applicability to European conditions. This included a visit to the University of Southern Queensland in Toowoomba and a round trip to practical farms in the region to study the special application situations on site.
At the university Dr. Brunotte presented our concept "Adaptation of Load Input by Agricultural Machines to the Susceptibility of Soil to Compaction" to the Australian colleagues (Dr. Jeff Tullberg, Dr. John Bennet, Dr. John Rochecoueste, Erik Schmidt) to reduce soil compaction. Mr. Brunotte's presentation was titled "Paddocks under pressure - adaption of machinery use to the compaction sensitivity of arable soils" and outlined essential contents of SOILAssist.
On the 27th of September 2016 the silage corn harvest was carried out on one of the SOILAssist test fields in Adenstedt.
The harvest involved the experimental tractor (New Holland T7.270), a New Holland corn chopper (FR550 Forage Cruiser) and a multi-purpose trailer with conveyor (Joskin Drakkar 7600). Furthermore, a self-propelled cleaner loader (Ropa Nawaro bunker mouse system Palandt) for overloading at the edge of the field was used by contractor J.-H. Deike and trucks for transport to the biogas plant. The subsequent mulching of the corn stubble was done with a tractor (New Holland M160), equipped with a front and side mounted mulcher (Agrimaster and Müthing).
During the silage corn harvest, the wheel crossing tests concentrated on determining soil pressure and deformation. A profile pit was required to set up the measuring point. The sensors were installed at three different depths using a mounting frame. Then the harvest chain crossed the prepared measuring point. To be able to examine the influence of the field traffic on the soil functions, soil samples was taken before the harvest in an unwheeled condition. The soil was then sampled after crossing of the entire machines of the harvest chain. The undisturbed soil samples were examined in the soil physical laboratory.
With the help of portable scales at the edge of the field, the exact weight of the machines used for harvest could be determined. In addition to other parameters such as tire inflation pressure or the number of wheel crossings, knowledge of the weight or wheel load is important for the experiments and for the evaluation of the influence of the various machines on the soil. The soil pressure and deformation measurements show us directly the effects of the current traffic on the soil. The investigations of the soil samples in the laboratory subsequently provide us with information on whether conductivity functions for water and air were influenced by field traffic and whether any damage occurred. This enables us to evaluate different mechanical loading situations when driving on arable land more effectively and to derive appropriate recommendations.
The sugar beet harvest in the SOILAssist project took place on the 24th of October 2016 in Adenstedt.
The self-propelled sugar beet harvester provided by machine cooperative Ambergau was a REXOR 630. It was a 6-row harvester with 3 axles and a bunker volume of 30 tons. It was adjusted by Grimme for the wheeling experiments of SOILAssist, e.g. by installing a measuring system for determining the bunker filling level and integrating corresponding software for recording the values and other machine data.
The experiments were carried out with full and half full bunker filling. The soil was sampled in the unwheeled condition before harvest and in the wheeled condition after harvest. In addition to soil sampling, infiltration experiments were also carried out. Since the sugar beets are stored in the headlands as a rent, the harvester repeatedly drives along the rent to empty the loader. This puts a heavy load on the soil in the headlands (high wheel load combined with high wheel crossing frequency). To investigate these effects, soil samples were also taken in the headlands before and after harvesting.
To determine the wheel loads of the sugar beet harvester with full and half-full bunker for the wheel crossing experiments, portable scales were used at the edge of the field and the loads for each wheel were determined axle by axle. The wheel contact area was also measured, which is another important parameter in addition to the tire inflation pressure and wheel load. For this purpose, the tires of the three axles had to be marked and sprayed from all sides with chalk powder. The resulting tire imprint could then be drawn on a plastic foil. The complete contact area of the tire including the lug contact area is thereby determined.
The investigation of soil pressure and soil deformation as well as undisturbed soil samples in combination with the recording of the respective traffic situation and the corresponding position on the field (RTK-GPS) also permits a spatial allocation of soil loads and load hot spots during harvesting. In addition, the observation of a field over several years allows statements to be made about the soil loads of an entire crop rotation or different crop sequences. Therefore, in SOILAssist we work on several fields at the same time to be able to examine each crop in each year on the one hand and to map the entire crop rotation of a field on the other hand as well as to measure the accumulation of the loads over time.
From 8th to 9th of September the SOILAssist project team, representatives of the BonaRes Centre and the project management Jülich as well as company representatives of Grimme came together. The meeting took place at the test site in Adenstedt. In addition to the lectures and discussions, a visit to the study fields was also part of the program. The participants presented their work in the project and exchanged information about the current status and future tasks.
On the first day, the project partners gave an overview of the on-board assistance system, the sensor system and the planning system as well as in spatial modelling. A live demo of a prototype of the planning system with Graphical User Interface was demonstrated. In the afternoon a visit of study fields of the project was on the agenda. Thereby the weather station especially built for the project was presented and the functionality of the individual devices was explained. The soil conditions of the test site were elucidated with the help of a soil profile pit and a soil profile characterization was performed. During a field demonstration of the functionality of a subsoiler, the advantages and disadvantages of subsoiling regarding soil compaction processes were discussed. This also included the excavation of a small pit on which the simple soil structure assessment for the farmer was introduced. On a New Holland test tractor, a first version of the sensor system in the tire and its integration into the on-board assistance system could be presented on a tablet in the tractor cabin.
On the second day the project partners presented the socio-economic evaluation of the project as well as the acceptance and implementation of soil protection measures. Furthermore, the representatives of the BonaRes Centre presented their main tasks of cross-project coordination. In addition, models and tools will be developed that describe the influence of land use measures on the soil system. Furthermore, the data center, which comprises data management and the consolidation of data from soil research into a central database for soil sciences, as well as a portal as a web-based interface for knowledge, information and services, are part of their work. In addition to the subsequent discussion of the upcoming field trials this year, the final discussion on the core questions and topics of the project provided important suggestions for the project team.
On the 14th and 15th of November 2016, the status seminar of the BMBF funding initiative "soils as a sustainable resource for the bioeconomy" took place in Leipzig. The SOILAssist team was involved along with nine other project networks and presented the project and its initial results.
From the 14th to the 16th of March 2016 the PLANT 2030 Status Seminar took place in Potsdam. SOILAssist participated as a project of the BMBF's funding program. In addition to a poster presentation, the SOILAssist team presented its project.